Fluorescence in PCR Diagnostics
PCR diagnostics makes it possible to detect and sequence DNA. RT-PCR is used to detect or sequence RNA. In a first step, the RNA is transkripted into DNA using reverse transkritase and then amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the DNA sections are sequenced... Learn more about it in this article.
Multiphoton (Fluorescence) Microscopy
In multiphoton microscopy, molecules are transformed into an electronically excited state by several photons. From this state, these molecules relax back into the electronic ground state by emission of a photon. This has the consequence that the emitted photon has a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the photons for excitation.
Filter Hints from Experts: Troubleshooting Signal Interference in Optical Systems
Beam distortion, ghost images, disturbing background signals or background radiation are problems that are perceived as very disturbing by users in optics and photonics, fluorescence microscopy, high-resolution microscopy or in the development of handheld systems.
A Brief Introduction to Super-resolution Microscopy
'Super-resolution microscopy' or 'imaging' generally refers to any microscopic technique capable of performing images with resolution below the diffraction limit.
Raman spectroscopy is used to measure vibrational and rotational transitions of molecules, similar to IR spectroscopy (with different selection rules). The difference is that Raman spectroscopy does not use IR light, but visible light. This makes it possible to use detectors and optics that are standard in optics.
The ‘Förster (or Fluorescence) Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy’ is a specialized application of fluorescence microscopy. In the FRET effect, energy is transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The efficiency of this energy transfer decreases with the sixths power of the distance and also depends on the orientation of the molecules. Due to this strong distance dependency, one can optically measure distances from 0 to approx. 10 nm.
STORM stands for 'STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy'. Together with PALM (Photoactivated Localization Micrsocopy) and GSDIM (Ground-State Depletion and Individual Molecule Return) and many other similar methods, these are single-molecule localization methods operating in the far-field mode.